Some lamivudine-resistant HBV remain susceptible to adefovir, but have reduced susceptibility to entecavir and telbivudine. Advise patients that Lamivudine Tablets and contain a higher dose of the same active ingredient Lamivudine as Lamivudine-HBV Tablets. Postexposure prophylaxis of HIV infection following nonoccupational exposure nPEP in individuals exposed to blood, genital secretions, or other potentially infectious body fluids of a person known to be infected with HIV when that exposure represents a substantial risk for HIV transmission. 198 Used in conjunction with other antiretrovirals. cost of using letrozole
Safety and efficacy not established in liver transplant recipients. 18 May reduce risk of HBV reinfection in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program MACDP. The results of these trials are summarized below. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. This product does not require reconstitution.
Comparison of steady-state pharmacokinetics of once-daily regimen 300-mg tablet once daily or twice-daily regimen 150-mg tablet twice daily indicates AUC is similar with both regimens; peak plasma concentrations are 66% higher and trough concentrations 53% lower with once-daily regimen. Animal Data: Studies in pregnant rats showed that Lamivudine is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. Reproduction studies with orally administered Lamivudine have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses producing plasma levels up to approximately 35 times that for the recommended adult HIV dose. No evidence of teratogenicity due to Lamivudine was observed. Evidence of early embryolethality was seen in the rabbit at exposure levels similar to those observed in humans but there was no indication of this effect in the rat at exposure levels up to 35 times those in humans.
Omata M. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection. N Engl J Med. Benhamou Y, Dohin E, Lunel-Fabiani F et al. Efficacy of lamivudine on replication of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected patients. Lancet. Palombi L, Pirillo MF, Andreotti M et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for breastfeeding transmission in Malawi: drug concentrations, virological efficacy and safety. Antivir Ther. This is the newest drug for hepatitis B. You can take it as a liquid or tablet. What are the ingredients in EPIVIR?
Do not run out of EPZICOM. Race: There are no significant racial differences in lamivudine pharmacokinetics. HIV-1 infection to others. Improvement was defined as a greater than or equal to 2-point decrease in the Knodell Histologic Activity Index HAI at Week 52 compared with pretreatment HAI. Subjects with missing data at baseline were excluded. Treatment can decrease the risk of passing the HIV infection to your baby. Lamivudine may be part of that treatment. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. An HIV-positive mother took a combination tablet containing dolutegravir 50 mg, abacavir sulfate 600 mg and lamivudine 300 mg Triumeq once daily. Her infant was exclusively breastfed for about 30 weeks and partially breastfed for about 20 weeks more. No obvious side effects were noted. Ormseth EJ, Holtzmuller KC, Goodman ZD, Colonna JO, Batty DS, Sjogren MH "Hepatic decompensation associated with lamivudine: A case report and review of lamivudine-induced hepatotoxicity. Stevens-Johnson syndrome to lamivudine or any ingredient in the formulation. Risk of HIV-1 resistance in people with unknown HIV-1 infection or in people with untreated HIV-1 infection. If you have or get HIV-1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 that is not being treated with medicines while taking Epivir-HBV, the HIV-1 virus may develop resistance to certain HIV-1 medicines and become harder to treat. Your healthcare provider should offer you counseling and testing for HIV-1 infection before you start treatment for hepatitis B with Epivir-HBV and during treatment. YMDD-mutant HBV was detected in 7 of 40 18% subjects receiving combination therapy compared with 15 of 35 43% subjects receiving therapy with only Epivir-HBV. In another controlled trial, combination therapy was evaluated in adult subjects with HBeAg-positive CHB who had YMDD-mutant HBV and diminished clinical and virologic response to Epivir-HBV. Comparable to a Grade 3 toxicity in accordance with modified WHO criteria. My ex husband after about a 20 year relationship would not even touch me. Funny thing is that he didn't contract it from me all those years and we didn't use protection. TRIZIVIR and are co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. CHILDREN weighing less than 66 lbs 30 kg; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed. Take lamivudine by mouth with or without food. PO 150 mg once daily.
Therefore, caution is advised when using this drug in older adults because they may be more sensitive to the effects of the drug. Continue to take entecavir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including Epivir-HBV and other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Most of these reports have described patients receiving nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV infection, but there have been reports of lactic acidosis in patients receiving lamivudine for hepatitis B. Particular caution should be exercised when administering Epivir-HBV to any patient with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases have also been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with Epivir-HBV should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations. Group 5 - shortness of breath, cough, sore throat. Some medical conditions may interact with entecavir. Bottles of 60 tablets NDC 0173-0662-00 with child-resistant closures. Janssen, H 2005. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: A randomised trial. Lancet, 3659454: 123-129. Normalization of serum ALT levels was more frequent with treatment of Epivir-HBV compared with placebo in Trials 1-3. Thirty women were studied at 6, 12 or 24 weeks postpartum 10 at each time. Each mother was taking zidovudine 300 mg, lamivudine 150 mg, lopinavir 400 mg, and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily by mouth starting at delivery. Exacerbations of HBV infection also reported when lamivudine discontinued from antiretroviral regimens in HIV-infected patients coinfected with HBV. dicyclomine
Lamivudine is included in preferred dual NRTI options used in conjunction with other antiretrovirals for treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women see Pregnancy under Cautions 202 but is not a component of intrapartum or neonatal prophylaxis regimens recommended in the US for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. Initiate PEP as soon as possible following occupational exposure to HIV preferably within hours; continue for 4 weeks, if tolerated. Epzicom : 1 tablet abacavir 600 mg and lamivudine 300 mg once daily. GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. HBV infection suddenly returns in a worse way than before. Lamivudine is present in human milk. There is no information available regarding lamivudine concentrations in milk from lactating women receiving lamivudine for treatment of HBV infection. Epivir-HBV not indicated for treatment of HIV-1 infection. 18 Offer HIV counseling and testing to all patients prior to and periodically during Epivir-HBV therapy. 18 Epivir-HBV tablets and oral solution used to treat HBV infection contain a lower dose of lamivudine than Epivir tablets and oral solution used to treat HIV infection. 18 Use of Epivir-HBV in patients with unrecognized or untreated HIV infection may result in rapid emergence of HIV resistance because of subtherapeutic dose and inappropriate monotherapy. 18 See Considerations in Patients Coinfected with HIV and HBV under Cautions. Inhibits replication of HIV and hepatitis B virus HBV. Some medications interact with EPIVIR. Early symptoms of lactic acidosis may get worse over time and this condition can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, fast or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired. imen.info eldepryl
HBV or are coinfected with hepatitis B virus HBV and HIV and have discontinued lamivudine. Who should not take EPIVIR-HBV? Fourteen of 50 subjects in the Lamivudine once-daily treatment group and 9 of 50 subjects in the Lamivudine twice-daily group were identified as virologic failures. Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. 'Multum' is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Advise diabetic patients that lamivudine oral solutions contain sucrose. Cupler EJ, Dalakas MC "Exacerbation of peripheral neuropathy by lamivudine. TRIZIVIR, can cause serious blood cell problems. EPIVIR is all gone. Do not take EPIVIR-HBV if you are allergic to lamivudine or any of the ingredients in EPIVIR-HBV. See the end of this Patient Information leaflet for a complete list of ingredients in EPIVIR-HBV. The relative bioavailability of the tablet and oral solution were demonstrated in healthy subjects. Although the solution demonstrated a slightly higher peak serum concentration C max there was no significant difference in systemic exposure AUC between the oral solution and the tablet. Therefore, the oral solution and the tablet may be used interchangeably. World Health Organization recommendations. Hemodialysis increases clearance; length of time of hemodialysis 4 hours insufficient to substantially alter mean lamivudine exposure after single-dose administration. 1 18 Not known whether lamivudine is removed by peritoneal dialysis or continuous 24 hour hemodialysis. Epivir-HBV is a trademark owned by or licensed to the GSK group of companies. Use entecavir with caution in the ELDERLY; they may be more sensitive to its effects. Hepatic Impairment: The pharmacokinetic properties of Lamivudine have been determined in adults with impaired hepatic function. Pharmacokinetic parameters were not altered by diminishing hepatic function. Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine. coumadin price united states
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use Lamivudine for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Lamivudine to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. Lamivudine twice daily showed that isolates from 2 subjects had M184V alone, and isolates from 2 subjects harbored the M184V substitution in combination with zidovudine resistance-associated amino acid substitutions. This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with lamivudine and zidovudine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide. Carry this Warning Card with you at all times. No. But again, it often goes away in a few months, and it occasionally disappears in people who have a chronic case of the disease. Take abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine by mouth with or without food. Elimination: The majority of Lamivudine is eliminated unchanged in urine by active organic cationic secretion. In 9 healthy subjects given a single 300-mg oral dose of Lamivudine, renal clearance was 199. Metabolism: Metabolism of lamivudine is a minor route of elimination. In humans, the only known metabolite of lamivudine is the trans-sulfoxide metabolite. Safety and efficacy not established for treatment of chronic HBV infection in patients coinfected with HCV or hepatitis D virus HDV. Do not consider Communities as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource, but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately. Do not start taking a new medicine without telling your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider can tell you if it is safe to take Lamivudine with other medicines. Epivir-HBV may be taken with or without food. mail order diclofenac online canada
EPIVIR-HBV oral solution is for oral administration. One milliliter 1 mL of EPIVIR-HBV oral solution contains 5 mg of lamivudine 5 mg per mL in an aqueous solution and the inactive ingredients artificial strawberry and banana flavors, citric acid anhydrous methylparaben, propylene glycol, propylparaben, sodium citrate dihydrate and sucrose 200 mg. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B including fatalities have been reported in HBV-infected patients including those coinfected with HIV-1 who have discontinued this drug. The causal relationship to stopping therapy was unknown. SD in C max of zidovudine. Has been used for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission, but not included in current recommendations for US patients. This medication works best when the amount of drug in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take this drug at evenly spaced intervals. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day. Trizivir consider that abacavir has been associated with serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions. Epivir-HBV is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HBV. Hepatitis B in pregnancy screening, treatment, and prevention of vertical transmission. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk. HBV is a trademark owned by or licensed to the GSK group of companies. Nelson M, Azwa A, Sokwala A, Harania RS, Stebbing J "Fanconi syndrome and lactic acidosis associated with stavudine and lamivudine therapy.
Bottles of 240 mL NDC 0173-0663-00 with child-resistant closures. This product does not require reconstitution. These involved exposures up to 50 grams. There was no significant difference in systemic exposure AUC in the fed and fasted states. It may take some time, try to be patient. See if she'll come to your appointment with you. Hearing it from a doctor may help ease her mind. Even though your appointment with your new doc won't be for a few weeks, someone at the office may have a letter they can send to your employer if he gives you a hard time. Ease up on yourself. There is a good chance you will live a long, active, healthy life. Do not let others ignorance make you feel alienated. Keep your chin up young man. HIV-1 disease who are treated with TRIZIVIR. Otherwise, consult your doctor before breast-feeding. It has a molecular formula of C 8H 11N 3O 3S and a molecular weight of 229. There were no other reported developmental anomalies. Pillay D, Cane P, Ratcliffe D et al. Evolution of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus and HIV-1 in co-infected individuals: an analysis of the CAESAR study. AIDS. Martinez E, Mocroft A, GarciaViejo MA, PerezCuevas JB, Blanco JL, Mallolas J, Bianchi L, Conget I, Blanch J, Phillips A, Gatell "Risk of lipodystrophy in HIV-1-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors: a prospective cohort study. Each 20-mL dose 100 mg of EPIVIR-HBV oral solution contains 4 grams of sucrose. Lamivudine was approved by the FDA on November 17, 1995 for use with AZT and again in 2002 as a once-a-day dosed medication. HIV-1 infection Epivir: Oral use in combination with other antiretroviral agents: 150 mg twice daily or 300 mg once daily. purchase isoptin australia
Long-acting interferon, peginterferon alfa2a , Pegasys Proclick can also help. This drug does have side effects. It can make you feel bad all over, depressed, and zap your appetite. It also lowers your white blood cell count, which makes it harder to fight off infection. If you have any questions about entecavir, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider. Keep bottles of EPIVIR oral solution tightly closed. Bartlett JA, Benoit SL, Johnson VA et al. Lamivudine plus zidovudine compared with zalcitabine plus zidovudine in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. Lactic acidosis is a serious medical emergency that can cause death. What are the possible side effects of Lamivudine? You may be more likely to get lactic acidosis or severe liver problems if you are female, very overweight obese or have been taking nucleoside analog medicines for a long time or have risks for liver problems. What is the most important information I should know about Lamivudine? ViiV Healthcare. Selzentry maraviroc tablets prescribing information. Research Triangle Park, NC; 2011 Nov. Pancreatitis 14%; diarrhea, nausea and vomiting 8%; stomatitis 6%; splenomegaly 5%. GX CJ7” on both sides. desloratadine brand names india
EPIVIR- is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HBV. In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following adverse reactions have been reported during postmarketing use of Epivir-HBV. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate the frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to lamivudine. Fat redistribution: May cause redistribution of fat eg, buffalo hump, peripheral wasting with increased abdominal girth, cushingoid appearance. Take this by on an empty at least 2 hours after a meal and 2 hours before the next meal as directed by your doctor, usually once daily. Importance of informing clinician of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs and dietary or herbal products, and any concomitant illnesses. Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including Lamivudine. What is stavudine, and how does it work mechanism of action? This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Drugs for HIV infection. Moodley J, Moodley D, Phillay K et al. Pharmacokinetics and antiretroviral activity of lamivudine alone or when coadministered with zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected pregnant women and their offspring. J Infect Dis. Child-Pugh greater than 6. See the full prescribing information for interferon and ribavirin. Lamivudine scored tablet is the preferred formulation for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients who weigh at least 14 kg and for whom a solid dosage form is appropriate. Consider more frequent monitoring of HIV-1 viral load when treating with Lamivudine oral solution. Guillain-Barré syndrome later in therapy; further evaluation and treatment may be required. Telbivudine is not a cure for hepatitis B infection, and it does not prevent the spread of the virus to others through sexual contact or contamination such as sharing used needles. This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; dosage reduction recommended. misoprostol
Once you have an allergic reaction to abacavir, you must never use it again. If you stop taking this medicine for any reason, talk to your doctor before you start taking it again. Carry the warning card of allergy symptoms with you. There is no information available regarding the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Instruct patients that if they miss a dose of Lamivudine, to take it as soon as they remember. In general, both C max and exposure AUC showed dose proportionality in the dosing range studied. Lamivudine is a nucleoside analogue indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 infection. Critical nature of compliance with HIV therapy and importance of remaining under the care of a clinician. 1 Importance of taking as prescribed; do not alter or discontinue antiretroviral regimen without consulting clinician. Exacerbations of hepatitis primarily detected by serum ALT elevations have been reported during HBV therapy and after drug discontinuation. Most events were self-limited; however, fatalities were reported in some cases. HIV-positive adult subjects in a single-center, open-label, randomized, crossover trial. No significant differences were observed in AUC or total clearance for lamivudine or zidovudine when the 2 drugs were administered together. The success of interferon treatment for hepatitis B depends on how treatment success is defined. -when the virus starts to multiply again-is common after treatment is stopped. Interferons stop the growth of the virus over the long term in about 35% of people who use them. Recent studies suggest that peginterferon works a little better than interferon. Use lamivudine with caution in CHILDREN; they may be more likely to experience certain side effects, including pancreas problems, wheezing, ear pain or swelling, or swollen lymph nodes. Rezk NL, White N, Bridges AS et al. Studies on antiretroviral drug concentrations in breast milk: validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of 7 anti-human immunodeficiency virus medications. Ther Drug Monit. PBMCs using standard susceptibility assays. Read the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your before you start taking and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. deltasone
Treatment of chronic HBV infection is complex and rapidly evolving and should be directed by clinicians familiar with the disease; consult a specialist to obtain the most up-to-date information. Each subject may be represented in one or more category. US reference population of the MACDP. Epivir-HBV tablets: hypromellose, macrogol 400, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polysorbate 80, red iron oxide, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, and yellow iron oxide. Advise patients that treatment with EPIVIR-HBV has not been shown to reduce the risk of transmission of HBV to others through sexual contact or blood contamination. AUC, and C maxare increased. The most common side effects reported with this drug have included headache, nausea, malaise, fatigue, nasal signs and symptoms, respiratory tract infections, throat and tonsil discomfort, abdominal discomfort and pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and cough. During clinical studies in HIV-1-infected patients, this drug was used with zidovudine with or without other antiretroviral agents. Patients with hepatitis B virus HBV infection received lamivudine monotherapy. The lamivudine resistance-associated substitution rtA181T results in diminished response to adefovir and telbivudine. Lau GKK, et al. 2005. Peginterferon alfa-2a, lamivudine, and the combination for HBeAG-positive chronic hepatitis B. New England Journal of Medicine, 35226: 2682-2695. Counsel patients on the importance of testing for HIV to avoid inappropriate therapy and development of resistance to HIV. HIV counseling and testing should be offered before starting Epivir-HBV and periodically during therapy. Inform patients that if they have or develop HIV infection and are not receiving effective HIV treatment, Epivir-HBV may increase the risk of development of resistance to HIV medications. EPZICOM, take it as soon as you remember. Anemia including pure red cell aplasia and severe anemias progressing on therapy. Adverse events were observed in some animal reproduction studies. Lamivudine has a high level of transfer across the human placenta. No increased risk of overall birth defects has been observed following first trimester exposure according to data collected by the antiretroviral pregnancy registry. Maternal antiretroviral therapy may increase the risk of preterm delivery, although, available information is conflicting possibly due to variability of maternal factors disease severity; initiation of therapy; however, maternal antiretroviral medication should not be withheld due to concerns of preterm birth. Based on data collected by the antiretroviral pregnancy registry, the risk of spontaneous abortions, induced abortions, and preterm birth is less in lamivudine-containing regimens compared with regimens without lamivudine. Information related to stillbirth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants is limited. Long-term follow-up is recommended for all infants exposed to antiretroviral medications; children who develop significant organ system abnormalities of unknown etiology particularly of the CNS or heart should be evaluated for potential mitochondrial dysfunction. Cases of lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis related to mitochondrial toxicity have been reported with use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors NRTIs. These adverse events are similar to other rare but life-threatening syndromes that occur during pregnancy eg, HELLP syndrome. In general, NRTIs are well tolerated and the benefits of use generally outweigh potential risk.
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Day 20. In the study, development of the offspring, including fertility and reproductive performance, was not affected by maternal administration of lamivudine at plasma concentrations Cmax 104 times higher than human exposure. EPIVIR-HBV tablets and oral solution may be administered with or without food. EPIVIR-HBV tablets are for oral administration. Each tablet contains 100 mg of lamivudine and the inactive ingredients hypromellose, macrogol 400, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polysorbate 80, red iron oxide, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, and yellow iron oxide. PO 150 mg first dose, then 50 mg once daily.
Each 20-mL dose 100 mg of Epivir-HBV oral solution contains 4 grams of sucrose. Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed. SD similar to that associated with a dose of 100 mg per day in adults. ViiV Healthcare. Retrovir zidovudine tablets, capsules, and syrup prescribing information. Research Triangle Park, NC; 2012 May. Use of the individual components is recommended for patients less than 25 kg; the manufacturer product information for abacavir and lamivudine should be consulted.
EPZICOM and become harder to treat resistant. Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of Lamivudine have been studied after either single or repeat doses of Lamivudine in pediatric subjects. Pediatric subjects receiving Lamivudine oral tablets achieved plasma concentrations comparable to or slightly higher than those observed in adults. The absolute bioavailability of both Lamivudine tablets and oral solution are lower in children than adults. The relative bioavailability of Lamivudine oral solution is approximately 40% lower than tablets containing Lamivudine in pediatric subjects despite no difference in adults. The mechanisms for the diminished absolute bioavailability of Lamivudine and relative bioavailability of Lamivudine solution are unknown.
How should I take abacavir and lamivudine? Epivir HBV, Heptovir. It comes as a liquid or tablet you take once a day. Uganda and Nigeria were taking tenofovir, emtricitabine and lamivudine and exclusively nursing their infants. The dosage of lamivudine was not stated, but presumably 300 mg daily. Pharmacologically related to, but structurally different from, other NRTIs and other currently available antiretrovirals.